Beef (references)


(A1) Alexander, T. W., L. J. Yanke, E. Topp, M. E. Olson, R. R. Read, D. W. Morck, and T. A. McAllister. 2008. “Effect of Subtherapeutic Administration of Antibiotics on the Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Bacteria in Feedlot Cattle.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology.. 74(14):4405-4416. DOI: :10.1128/AEM.00489-08.

(A2) University of Alberta. May 7, 2009. Researchers find way to cut cattle methane, threat to environment, by 25 percent. Press release. Accessed April 29, 2014 at

(B2) Berners-Lee, M., C. Hoolohan, H. Cammack, and C. N. Hewitt. 2012. “The relative greenhouse gas impacts of realistic dietary choices.” Energy Policy. 43:184-190. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.054.

(B3) Ball, Jeffrey. September 18, 2009. “Hate calculus? Try Counting Cow Carbon.” The Wall Street Journal. A18.

(B4) Byck, Peter [guest]. August 17, 2013. Real Time With Bill Maher. Host: Bill Maher. HBO Talk Show. Maher, bill [executive producer and writer], Marc Gurvitz [executive producer], Paul Casey [director]. HBO.

(B5)Byck, Peter [director and producer], Craig Sieben [producer], Karen Weigert [producer], Chrisna Van Zyl [producer], Artemis Joukowsky III [producer], and Gill Holand [associate producer]. 2011. Carbon Nation. Documentary.Warner Brothers Studio.

(B6) Beef Checkoff. The Beef Lifecycle. Accessed April 29, 2014 at

(C1) Hockstad, L., and M. Weitz. 2013. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2011. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington DC: 430-R-13-001.

(C2) Compassion Over Killing. November 9, 2012. Victory: L.A. Passes Meatless Monday Resolution. [website article]. Accessed April 25, 2013 at

(C3) Land, Susan S. October 4, 2007. “Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report.” Cornell Chronicle. Cornell University. Accessed June 25, 2013 at

(C4) Capper, J.L. 2007. “The environmental impact of beef production in the United States: 1977 compared with 2007.” Journal of Animal Science. ,89:4249-4261.

(C5) Capper, Judith L. 2012. “Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems.” Animals. 2:127-143. DOI:10.3390/ani2020127.

(D1) Damron, Stephen W. 2006. Introduction to Animal Science. Pearson Prentice-Hall. Third Edition.

(E1) Environmental Protection Agency. Production Phases: Life cycle of beef cattle [web article]. Ag 101. Accessed March 11, 2014 at

(E2) Environmental Protection Agency. June 21, 2013. National Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data [webpage]. Climate Change. Accessed August 6, 2013 at

(E3) Environmental Working Group. 2011. Meat Eaters Guide: Methodology. Accessed July 18, 2013 at

(E4) Ellis, J. L., et. al. 2009. “Modeling methane production from beef cattle using linear and non-linear approaches.” Journal of Animal Science. 87(4)1334. DOI:10.2527/jas.2007-0725.

(F1) Feedstuffs. December 14, 2009. “Don’t blame cows for climate.” Page 3.

(F2) December 29, 2008. EPA Tax on Cows and Pigs? [website]. Accessed April 292, 2014 at

(F3) Farm Bureau. Green House Gas Regulation, The Clean Air Act and Potential Implications For Production Livestock. Accessed April 29, 2014 at

(F4) Federal Registrar. July 30, 2008. Regulating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under the Clean Air Act. Proposed rule by the Environmental Protection Agency. 73:147.

Fiala, Nathan. February 2009. “The Greenhouse Hamburger.” Scientific American. Pages 72-74.

(G1) Gauldin, Cliff. April 19, 2010. “Emissions researcher feels activist backlash.” Feedstuffs. Pages 14-15.

(F1) Fiala, Nathan. February 4, 2009. “How Meat Contributes to Global Warming.” Scientific American.

(F2) Fiala, Nathan. February 4, 2008. “Meeting the demand: An estimation of potential future greenhouse gas emissions from meat production.” Ecological Economics. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.12.021.

(H1) Hossain, Ishrat, Francis M. Epplin, Gerald W. Horn, and Eugene G. Krenzer. 2004. Wheat Production and Management Practices used by Oklahoma Grain and Livestock Producers. 2004. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Oklahoma State University. B-818.

(H2) Hoyt, Austin [producer, writer, director]. Rios, Patricia Garcia [co-producer and co-editor]. Blome, Franziska and Melissa Martin [associate producers]. Chicago: City of the Century. [documentary]. American Experience. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Online transcript accessed May 15, 2013 at

(J1) Joybe, Christopher. November 26, 2013. “U.S May Be Producing 50 Percent More Methan Than EPA Thinks.” National Public Radio.

(L1) Lang, Susan S. October 4, 2007. “Diet for small planet may be most efficient if it includes dairy and a little meat, Cornell researchers report.” Cornell Chronicle. Accessed May 1, 2014 at

(N1) National Cattleman’s Beef Board and National Cattleman’s Beef Association. April 2009. Modern Beef Production [fact sheet]. Accessed March 11, 2014 at

(N2) National Cattleman’s Beef Board and National Cattleman’s Beef Association. October 2007. Growth Promotant Use in Cattle Production. [fact sheet]. Accessed March 11, 2014 at

(N3) Norwood, F. Bailey, Michelle S. Calvo, Sarah Lancaster, and Pascal A. Oltenacu. 2014. Agricultural and Food Controversies: What Everyone Needs to Know Oxford University Press: NY, NY.

(N3) Norwood, F. Bailey and Jayson L. Lusk. 2011. Compassion, by the Pound. Oxford University Press: NY, NY.

(O1) Ohio History Central. Cuyahoga River Fire. Accessed June 25, 2012 at

(O2) O'Conner, Michael L. 1993. Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle. Extension Circular 402. Penn State University. College of Agricultural Sciences.

(P1) Pitesky, Maurice E., Kimberly R. Stackhouse, and Frank M. Mitloehner. 2009. “Clearing the Air: Livestock’s Contribution to Climate Change.” Donald Sparks, editor: Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 103. Burlington: Academic Press pp. 1-40.

(P2) Pimental, David and Marcia Pimental. 2003. “Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.” American Society for Clinical Nutrition. 78(suppl):660S-3S.

(P3) Place, Sara E., Yuee Pan, Yongjing, and Frank M. Mitloehner. 2011. “Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle.” Animals. 1:433-446. doi: 10.3390/ani1040433.

(R1) Rick, Rasby and Gene Deutcher. Synchronizing Estrus in Beef Cattle. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Accessed April 10, 2014 at

(S1) Short, Sara D. November 2001. Characteristics and Production Costs of U.S. Cow-Calf Operations. Economics Research Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Statistical Bulletin Number 974-3.

(S2) Stewart, Lawton. March 14, 2013. Implanting Beef Cattle [web article]. College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. CAES Publications. Accessed March 11, 2013 at

(S3) Steinfeld, Henning, Pierre Gerber, Tom Wassenaar, Vincent Castel, Mauricio Rosales, and Cees de Haan. 2006. “Livestock’s Long Shadow.” Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.

(S4) Smith, Rod. June 14, 2010. “U.N. report urges dietary shift.” Feedstuffs. Page 9.

(T1) Taylor, Karen W., Francis M. Epplin, Derrell S. Peel, and Gerald W. Horn. 2007. “Value of an Extended Grazing Season and Value of Monensin Supplements for Stocker Cattle Grazing Winter Wheat Pasture.” Journal of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. 70:59-71.

(V1) Vieux, Florent, Louis-Georges Soler, Djilali Touazi, and Nicole Darmon. 2013. “High nutritional quality is not associated with low greenhouse gas emissions in self-selected diets of French adults.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 97:569-83.

(V2) Vieux, F., N. Darmon, D. Touazi, and L. G. Soler. 2012. “Greenhouse gas emissions of self-selected individual diets in France: Changing the diet structure or consuming less?” Ecological Economics. 75:91-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.01.003.

(V3) Vries, M. de, J. M. de Boer. 2010. “Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments.” Livestock Science. 128:1-3:1-11.